What Is Sewage Treatment Plant?

May 22, 2023by newebay020

A sewage treatment facility is in charge of cleaning wastewater thoroughly and removing toxins before it is released back into the environment. It is undeniable that without sewage treatment methods, animals would become ill or die, beaches, dunes, and salt marshes would become unsuitable for both humans and animals, and water would quickly become contaminated and dangerous to drink or use.

The basic operation of the Sewage treatment plant

Sewage treatment facilities are categorized as follows:

  1. Chemical treatment
  2. Biological treatment
  3. combining different chemicals
  4. heat treatment and biological treatment.

The physio-chemical treatment followed by polishing is the fundamental operating principle of the STP. Treatments include sand filtration, activated charcoal treatment (adsorption), ozonation (chemical oxidation), reverse osmosis (RO), and evaporation.

These sewage treatment plant save energy, clean up waste with cost-effective operations, and adhere to regulatory requirements. Fundamentally, the industry and location have a big impact on how an sewage treatment plant is designed.

How does Sewage Treatment Plant Work?

Bar Screen

The Bar Screen’s job is to screen out any potential particles that could clog the pipes inside the STP in order to avoid blockages from occurring.

After a few weeks, all of these particles are removed as part of STP maintenance.

An Equalization Tank

The main job of the equalization tank is to serve as a buffer. to position to the rest of the ETP at a stable (Average) flow rate and collect the incoming raw effluent that comes at highly variable rates. ETP is delivered at a high flow rate during peak hours with the aid of blowers. When there is no or very little incoming effluent during non-peak hours, the equalization tank stores this sewage and releases it. Filtered effluent is carried in the equalization tank’s inflow pipe to avoid clogging.

water treatment plant

Aeration Tank

The Equalization Tank to Aeration Tank sewage is transferred using a sewage lifting pump.

Aeration is used as a pretreatment in the water treatment process to get rid of iron and hydrogen sulfide, which gives water a rotten egg odor. Iron and hydrogen sulfide are both effectively oxidized by air. It swiftly transforms ferrous iron that cannot be filtered into ferric iron that can be filtered, and it turns hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur, which can be readily removed from water by a filter. Air oxidizes substances very quickly—much more quickly than chlorine.

Tube settler tank.

Poly Aluminum Chloride (PAC) is transferred from the PAC tank into the Tube Settler Tank. PAC is a good coagulant with low sludge waste generation and high coagulant efficiency.

Tube settlers use numerous tubular channels that are close to one another and inclined at an inclination of 60 degrees to maximize the effective settling area. As a result, settling periods are shortened because the particle settling depth is substantially lower than that of a traditional clarifier.

The bigger floc is able to travel to the tank bottom in a more settleable state because tube settlers grab the settleable finefloc that escapes the clarifying zone beneath them. Solids are gathered in the tube settler’s channel into a tight mass, which encourages the solids to slide down the tube channel.

Immediate storage tank.

The chlorine dosing tank discharges chlorine into the nearby storage tank.

When chlorine is used to treat water, it helps to delay the activity of anaerobic sulfate-reducing substances and also helps to lessen odor-related annoyance. Also, while the germs are still in the immediate storage tank, chlorine aids in their destruction.

The Filter Feeds

The water is sent to the pressure sand filter by the filter feed pump.

Several layers of sand with different sizes and specific gravities make up the Pressure Sand Filter. These filters are made to remove turbidity and suspended particles from feed water with the least amount of pressure loss possible. After that, the water is sent to a carbon filter, which is the best at eliminating chlorine, sediment, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), taste, and odor from water. They are ineffective at eliminating dissolved inorganic chemicals, minerals, and salts (DOCs)

Carbon filters can typically filter out particles that are between 0.5 and 50 micrometers in size. The filter description will include the particle size. A carbon filter’s effectiveness is also dependent on how the flow rate is controlled. The pollutants are exposed to the filter media for a longer period of time when the water is permitted to pass through the filter at a slower rate.

Treated Water Tank

Depending on where the sewage treatment plant is located, this is the water’s eventual destination, where it will be dispersed for either home or industrial usage.

Finally, the sludge is transferred to the sludge holding tank.

Final disposal typically involves the use of the material as fertilizer on fields, deposition at waste disposal facilities, or incineration either internally or with an external partner, frequently as part of the production of electricity.

Sewage Treatment Plants comply with government regulations

The treated sewage must meet the following requirements.

S. No. Parameter Required Standard
1 pH 6.5-8.5
2 BOD <10mg/l
3 COD <50mg/l
4 Suspended Solids <10 mg/l
5 Ammonical nitrogen <5 mg/l
6 Total Nitrogen <5 mg/l
7 Fecal Coliform <100 MPL/ml


The key benefits of sewage treatment plant (STP) are as follows:

  • The construction of a sewage treatment facility reduces environmental dangers.
  • STP satisfies the government’s pollution emission standards and avoids a costly fine.
  • A sewage treatment facility can handle massive amounts of sewage quickly, saving time.
  • Sewage treatment plants assist to protect the environment from contamination.
  • Plant setup is quick and simple, with little servicing and maintenance required.

STP is a tried-and-true approach that consistently produces consistent outcomes.

Sewage treatment system applications include:

  1. Townships, factories, and industries
  2. Resorts and Hotels
  3. Educational Institutions and Schools
  4. Hospitals and nursing homes are two of the most common types of facilities.
  5. Residential colonies with a large population
  6. Apartments and complexes
  7. Projects for residential construction
  8. Commercial construction projects
  9. Shopping malls and shopping complexes
  10. IT parks
The life expectancy of the sewage treatment plant

The typical lifespan of a wastewater treatment facility is 40 to 50 years, while that of its treatment equipment is 15 to 20 years. As a result, in order to increase their lifespans, the majority of Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) built in the early 1970s need to be improved, repaired, or replaced.

These changes are essential to prevent nutrient concentrations in surface waters and to perform efficient stormwater management to prevent overflow.

How can we assist?

Netsol Water  is a leading provider of Sewage Treatment Facilities, Waste Water Treatment Plants, and other water treatment plants. We have in-house operations and maintenance capabilities for operating water and wastewater treatment systems, which we can include as part of a full design-build-operate package. All forms of chemicals, physical, and biological impurities are effectively removed by our water treatment systems.

As a result, if you want a high-quality Sewage Treatment Plant that is not only effective in water purification but also offers low-cost maintenance, easy installation, and a reasonable pricing, go to Netsol Water Solution’s website or call its customer service number to place your order.

We collaborate with our clients to design a customized water treatment solution that meets your specific requirements, as well as an ongoing service plan to completely or partially maintain your system. For further information, contact us at +91 9650608473 or email at enquiry@netsolwater.com.

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