Industrial wastewater contains a variety of pollutants, necessitating the use of a specific treatment method called Effluent treatment plant, also known as an ETP. The goal of ETP is to discharge clean water into the environment, while protecting it from the negative effects of the effluent.
Depending on the industry, industrial effluents comprise a range of different substances. Some effluents contain hazardous substances (e.g., cyanide), while others contain oils and grease. Additionally, few degradable organic contaminants are also present in factory effluents from the production industries.
Let’s understand the treatment processes of effluent treatment plants or ETPs.
Effluent Treatment Plant Design
The ETP design is based on the kind and volume of effluent discharged by various industries, as well as the availability of land. In most of the cases, Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETP) is preferable over Effluent Treatment Plants, if land is scarce in the industry.
Effluent treatment plant process
Depending on the kind of effluent, different effluents require different treatments. Before effluent is released into the environment, wastewater enters the effluent treatment plant and undergoes a number of processes.
The steps of the effluent treatment plant process are as follows:
- Preliminary Treatment
The main aim of preliminary treatment is physical separation of large-sized pollutants and materials, like cloth, paper, plastic, and wood logs. This process entails:
- Screening: In effluent treatment processes, this is the initial unit activity that takes place. It uses equipment, known as a screen that consists of consistently sized apertures, used to catch big floating objects.
- Sedimentation: It is a physical method of purifying water that eliminates suspended particulates from the water, by employing gravity.
- Grit Chamber: The effluent that enters the grit chamber eliminates the heavy inorganic materials, which have found their way into the sewers, such as gravel, metal shavings, and sand. This method is essential as grit removal can help in avoiding pump damage and operational issues.
- Clarifiers: Before biological treatment, particles deposited by sedimentation are continuously removed from the tank, by mechanical means.
- Primary treatment
Its goal is to remove items the float and settle such as suspended solids and organic debris. Both physical and chemical techniques are employed in this treatment. It contains:
- Coagulation: It is a procedure that involves the addition of coagulants, in order to hasten the quick settling of tiny solid particles in a liquid, into larger mass. It enables filtration and sedimentation for particle removal.
- Flocculation: It is a physical process and involves destabilization of particles. These particles are then combined into substantial aggregates, in order to make it simple to remove them from the water.
- Neutralization: The major goal of this procedure is to keep the pH in the range of 6-9, which is necessary to satisfy the needs of the various ETP processing units.
- Primary Clarifiers: These are used to decrease the water’s velocity so that organic solids will settle to the tank’s bottom, and contain equipment for removing floating solids and oil from the surface.
- Secondary or biological treatment
The major goal of this treatment is to remove any remaining organic matter and suspended particulates from the effluent, from the initial treatment. This stage involves biological activities.
- Activated Sludge Process: It uses air and a biological floc made of bacteria to clean industrial effluent.
- Aerated Lagoons: It is an artificial aeration system that is added to a treatment pond, to aid in the biological oxidation of wastewater.
- Trickling filters: These filters are also referred to as sprinkling filters, and are frequently used for the biological treatment of sewage and industrial wastewater.
- Rotating Biological Contactor: This process involves exposing wastewater to a biological medium, in order to filter out pollutants before releasing the cleaned wastewater into the environment.
- Advanced/tertiary treatment
The goal of tertiary treatment is to provide a final step of treatment to enhance the effluent quality, to the appropriate level before it is reused, recycled, or released into the environment.
- Chemical coagulation and sedimentation: Both methods are employed to increase the removal of solids from effluent.
- Filtration: The cleared effluent is sent through the nearby filtration plant’s big filter blocks, to ensure high-quality water.
- Reverse osmosis: In this method, effluent is forced under pressure across a membrane, which traps impurities on one side and lets clean water through to the other.
- UV disinfection: This method is regarded as the best one for treating effluent. By maintaining the water quality, it ensures that no residual infection is left in the water.
An ETP system is a fully automated system. Because of this, it needs utility services for installation and appropriate maintenance, just like any other mechanical plant.
Choose the best manufacturers of effluent treatment plants in India
Since a decade, Netsol Water Solutions have been providing water, wastewater and effluent treatment services in India. We have extensive knowledge and expertise in the operation and upkeep of water treatment facilities, wastewater treatment facilities (ETP/STP), softening processes, and iron removal methods. We construct and manage water treatment facilities that adhere to state pollution control board standards.
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